Gottlieb’s comments were welcome — yet more is needed. Even with recently announced reforms, the FDA’s regulation of cigarette alternatives, such as electronic cigarettes, threatens to do more to harm than to help public health. It is likely unconstitutional to boot.
Despite reductions in smoking, cigarettes remain one of the leading causes of preventable death in the United States. Though many smoke for the nicotine, it’s not the nicotine that kills. Rather, it is the combustion of tobacco that is primarily responsible for smoking’s risk. E-cigarettes (and smokeless tobacco products) have the potential to satisfy smokers’ craving for nicotine at far lower risk. The available evidence suggests that e-cigarettes expose smokers (and others) to a fraction of the health risks posed by combustible tobacco. Yet as I discuss at length in this forthcoming paper, the harm reduction potential of e-cigarettes is hampered by federal regulation and the not-so-subtle suggestion from government officials that e-cigarettes are as dangerous as tobacco cigarettes. Federal regulatory measures and health pronouncements that discourage current smokers from trying e-cigarettes and other less-dangerous alternatives may hamper efforts to safe smokers’ lives.
It is well-established that advertising, product labels and other forms of commercial speech are protected by the First Amendment. “The fact that speech is in aid of a commercial purpose does not deprive responded of all First Amendment Protection,” explained the Supreme Court in United States v. United Foods. Commercial speech may not receive quite the same level of protection as political speech, but the protection it receives is significant.
Under current law, restrictions on commercial speech are evaluated under the “Central Hudson” test. Under this test, commercial speech is protected provided it concerns a lawful product and is not misleading. Restrictions on such commercial speech must be justified by a substantial governmental interest. In addition, such restrictions must directly advance the government interest asserted and cannot be more extensive than necessary to serve that interest.
The Tobacco Act’s prohibition on the ability of producers to make factual statements about cigarette alternatives are quite sweeping. Under the act’s provisions concerning “Modified Risk Tobacco Products” (MRTP), producers of deemed products may not make commercial statements that “explicitly or implicitly” indicate that the product or its “smoke” “presents a lower risk of tobacco-related disease or is less harmful than one or more other commercially marketed tobacco products”; “contains a reduced level of a substance or presents a reduced exposure to a substance”; or “does not contain or is free of a substance.”
As interpreted by the FDA, a manufacturer’s claim that an e-cigarette “contains less nicotine” or is a “healthier alternative to smoking” is prohibited, unless the manufacturer first submits to a lengthy and costly process to be approved as an MRTP. Although several such applications have been submitted to the FDA, as of this writing, none have been approved. (The FDA keeps track of applications and orders here.)
The Tobacco Act’s MRTP provisions are not the only way in which tobacco regulation stifles truthful claims. According to the FDA, manufacturers of e-cigarettes and other tobacco cigarette alternatives may not make “therapeutic” claims about their products unless and until they obtain FDA approval as medical drugs or devices. Here again, the prohibition is construed broadly.
According to the FDA, were an e-cigarette manufacturer to inform consumers that its products are an alternative (and less dangerous) way for smokers to satisfy their nicotine cravings, this would be a “therapeutic” claim. As the FDA explained in a recent Federal Register notice, “statements related to quitting smoking generally create a strong suggestion that a product is intended for a therapeutic purpose.” Therefore such claims cannot be made without FDA approval. Here again, producers and vendors are prohibited from repeating the FDA’s own language. While the FDA has admitted “there is emerging data that some individual smokers may potentially use ENDS to transition away from combustible tobacco products,” e-cigarette manufacturers may not tell this to consumers of their products.
In Thompson v. Western States Medical Center the Supreme Court expressly “rejected the notion that the Government has an interest in preventing the dissemination of truthful commercial information in order to prevent members of the public from making bad decisions with the information.” Instead of suppressing such speech, the court explained, the government must pursue alternatives, such as mandating curative statements or disclaimers. The problem of potentially harmful or misleading speech is to be cured by more speech. As the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit explained in Pearson v. Shalala, “when government chooses a policy of suppression over disclosure — at least where there is no showing that disclosure would not suffice to cure misleadingness — government disregards a ‘far less restrictive’ means.” Only if the government can show that such disclaimers are insufficient may limitations on truthful claims be considered.
As the court further explained in Rubin v. Coors Brewing Co., claims that truthful speech is inherently and incurably harmful or misleading require more than “mere speculation or conjecture.” To justify limitations on factual claims, the government “must demonstrate that harms it recites are real and that its restrictions will alleviate them to a material degree.” So, for instance, the FDA would have to be able to “demonstrate” that limiting truthful claims about the relative risks of e-cigarettes is likely to harm public health. Given that consumers are more likely to overestimate, than to underestimate, the relative risks of e-cigarettes, this is a burden the FDA would have a hard time meeting. Nonetheless, a federal district court was dismissive of e-cigarette makers’ First Amendment claims in a recent decision rejecting challenges to the FDA’s deeming rule.
The government has a significant interest in ensuring that producers do not misrepresent their products or make unsubstantiated product claims. But under current First Amendment jurisprudence, this does not allow the government to prohibit truthful claims about otherwise legal products. If the FDA is concerned that e-cigarette manufacturers might oversell their products’ benefits or mislead consumers, it can require disclaimers and qualifications, much as is done with nutritional supplements. What the FDA cannot do is simply require manufacturers to be silent. Such a position is contrary to the First Amendment — and risks undermining public health.
Original Article at The Washington Post here.